Some Apparent Realities of Decision Making in Complex Organizations

Some Things A Manager Cannot Do Much About Some Things Individual Managers Can Do Some Things Organizations Can Do
The fact that decision making in organizations is not a totally rational, orderly process. Choose problems to work on: which battles to fight and where, and when to cut losses. Promote organizational learning and decision transparency.
The nature of managerial work: fragmented, frequent interruptions, action oriented. Develop the diverse set of skills necessary to act in different situations. Develop a culture of vigilant information processing.
People are limited information processors: they have biases, vested interests, emotions. Know yourself: know your strengths, weaknesses, hot buttons, blindspots. Provide assignments where decision-making skills can be developed.
Fundamental forces in the organization's external and internal environment. Develop firm knowledge of the business and good working relationships. Communicate, clarify goals and objectives, as well as methods and processes.

Adapted from: McCall and Kaplan 1991